How student engagement has been enhanced through research into factors affecting creativity
Student engagement is critical in helping students learn effectively and achieve success. For students working in the areas of art and design, there is also a strong emphasis placed on the importance of creativity. Over recent years we have conducted research into the factors and processes affecting creativity and explored how these insights can help improve student engagement and student creativity. The paper discusses the relationship between factors affecting student engagement and creativity; how our curriculum has been designed to develop student creativity; and how we have evaluated and refined our curriculum to enhance student engagement, based on our research into creativity. We present results from the National Student Survey (NSS) and from our own internal qualitative and quantitative data analysis highlighting areas where we have made a positive impact on student engagement. We also reflect on areas for further development and the possible impact our approach and curriculum design could have on other disciplines.
Amabile, T. M. (1985). Motivation and creativity: Effects of motivational orientation on creative writers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48(2), 393-399.
Amabile, T. M. (1988). A model of creativity and innovation in organizations. Research in organizational behavior, 10(1), 123-167.
Amabile, T. M. (1997). Motivating creativity in organizations: On doing what you love and loving what you do. California management review, 40(1), 39-58.
Amabile, T., & Kramer, S. (2011). The progress principle. Harvard Business Review Press, Boston, MA.
Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative research in psychology, 3(2), 77-101.
Brown, S. L. (2009). Play: How it shapes the brain, opens the imagination, and invigorates the soul. Penguin.
Cardiff Met (2017). Cardiff Metropolitan University, Strategic Plan 2017-2023. Retrieved from http://campaigns.cardiffmet.ac.uk/documents/hr/3Page-Strategic-Plan.pdf
Connor, A. M., Karmokar, S. & Whittington, C. (2015). From STEM to STEAM: Strategies for enhancing engineering & technology education. International Journal of Engineering Pedagogy (iJEP), 5(2), 37-47.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1997). Flow and the psychology of discovery and invention. HarperPerennial, New York, 39.
Deininger, G. (2012, June). The Cohesive Classroom, 8th Global conference on Creative Engagements: Thinking with Children, Oxford.
Deininger, G. (2013). Does State of Being and Dynamic Movement have a relationship with Creativity? (Doctoral dissertation, Cardiff Metropolitan University).
Deininger, G., Loudon, G., & Norman, S. (2012). Modal preferences in creative problem solving. Cognitive processing, 13(1), 147-150.
Fry, H., Ketteridge, S., & Marshall, S. (Eds.). (2008). A handbook for teaching and learning in higher education: Enhancing academic practice. Routledge.
Gibbs, G. (2010). Dimensions of quality. York: Higher Education Academy.
Gordon, G. (2008). What is play? In search of a universal definition. Play and Culture Studies, 8, 1-21.
Hattie, J., & Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of educational research, 77(1), 81-112.
Kahneman, D. (1973). Attention and effort (Vol. 1063). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Kahu, E. R., & Nelson, K. (2018). Student engagement in the educational interface: understanding the mechanisms of student success. Higher Education Research & Development, 37(1), 58-71.
Kahu, E., Nelson, K., & Picton, C. (2017). Student interest as a key driver of engagement for first year students. Student Success, 8(2), 55-66.
Kahu, E., Stephens, C., Leach, L., & Zepke, N. (2015). Linking academic emotions and student engagement: Mature-aged distance students’ transition to university. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 39(4), 481-497.
Keane, L. & Keane, M. (2016). STEAM by Design. Design and Technology Education, 21(1), 61-82.
Krause, K. L., & Coates, H. (2008). Students’ engagement in first‐year university. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 33(5), 493-505.
Kuh, G. D. (2003). What we're learning about student engagement from NSSE: Benchmarks for effective educational practices. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 35(2), 24-32.
Kuh, G. D. (2009a). What student affairs professionals need to know about student engagement. Journal of college student development, 50(6), 683-706.
Kuh, G. D. (2009b). The national survey of student engagement: Conceptual and empirical foundations. New directions for institutional research, 2009(141), 5-20.
Loudon G. (2018). Experiences of running a ‘Play and Creativity’ module in a School of Art & Design, In James, A. and Nerantzi, C. (Eds.), The Power of Play in HE: Creativity in Tertiary Learning, Palgrave Macmillan (IN PRESS).
Loudon, G.H. & Deininger, G.M. (2014). A New Model for Supporting Creativity in Research Organisations. In Schimpf, S. (Ed.), Proceedings of the R&D Management Conference, Fraunhofer IAO, Germany, 93-100.
Loudon, G.H., Deininger, G.M., and Gordon, B.S. (2012). Play, Autonomy and the Creative Process. In Duffy, A., Nagai, Y., Taura, T. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Design Creativity, The Design Society, UK, 87-96.
Loudon, G. H., & Deininger, G. M. (2016). The Physiological Response during Divergent Thinking. Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, 6(01), 28.
Loudon, G. H. & Deininger, G. M. (2017). The Physiological Response to Drawing and Its Relation to Attention and Relaxation. Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, 7, 111-124.
Loudon, G., Zampelis, D., & Deininger, G. (2017). Using Real-time Biofeedback of Heart Rate Variability Measures to Track and Help Improve Levels of Attention and Relaxation. In Proceedings of the 2017 ACM SIGCHI Conference on Creativity and Cognition, 348-355. ACM.
Osterman, K. F. (2000). Students' need for belonging in the school community. Review of educational research, 70(3), 323-367.
Pajares, F., & Schunk, D. (2001). The development of academic self-efficacy. Development of achievement motivation. United States, 7.
Pascarella, E. T., & Terenzini, P. T. (1991). How college affects students (Vol. 1991). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Pascarella, E. T., Seifert, T. A., & Blaich, C. (2010). How effective are the NSSE benchmarks in predicting important educational outcomes?. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 42(1), 16-22.
Peifer, C., Schulz, A., Schächinger, H., Baumann, N., & Antoni, C. H. (2014). The relation of flow-experience and physiological arousal under stress—can u shape it?. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 53, 62-69.
Rhodes, M. (1961). An analysis of creativity. The Phi Delta Kappan, 42(7), 305-310.
Robinson, K. (2001). All our futures: Creativity, culture and education. Sudbury: DfEE.
Robinson, K., & Aronica, A. L. (2015). Creative Schools: revolutionising education from the ground up.
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American psychologist, 55(1), 68.
Thomas, L. (2012). Building student engagement and belonging in Higher Education at a time of change. Paul Hamlyn Foundation, 100.
Trowler, P. & Trowler, V. (2010). Student engagement evidence summary. York: Higher Education Academy.
Watson, A. D. & Watson, G. H. (2013). Transitioning STEM to STEAM: Reformation of engineering education. Journal for Quality and Participation, 36(3), 1-5.
World Economic Forum. (2016). The future of jobs: Employment, skills and workforce strategy for the fourth industrial revolution. World Economic Forum, Geneva, Switzerland.
Zhao, Y. (2012). World class learners: Educating creative and entrepreneurial students. Corwin Press.
a. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
b. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
c. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).